Study on Microstructure and Properties of 6061 Aluminum Alloy Ultrasonic Welded Joints

[China Aluminum Network] 6061 aluminum alloy has the advantages of moderate strength, corrosion resistance, good processability, and strong weldability. It has been widely used in functional and structural materials. Conventional welding methods (such as MIG, TIG, etc.) are often used to weld such alloys at home and abroad, but the strength of welded joints is not enough, and welding seams are prone to defects such as gas, inclusions, and cracks. Ultrasonic welding technology can realize the connection of low-melting-point materials such as magnesium alloys and aluminum alloys, which are difficult to weld with traditional welding methods, together with outstanding advantages such as energy saving, environmental protection, and easy operation. This article will study in detail the joint microstructure, surface morphology and mechanical properties of 6061 aluminum alloy after ultrasonic welding, and obtain better process parameters for ultrasonic welding of 6061 aluminum alloy, and analyze the effect of aluminum alloy surface treatment on its welding performance. To promote the application of advanced welding technology such as ultrasonic welding in connection with lightweight alloys.

The experiment used 0.3mm thick 6061 aluminum alloy, the test piece size is 160mm × 18mm × 0.3mm. Ultrasonic metal spot welding machine is used to weld the two cut aluminum sheets. The working frequency is 20kHz, the amplitude is 35um, welding pressure and welding time are adjustable, and the welding head size is 8mm×8mm. The welding time varies from 40 to 140 ms, and the cylinder pressure varies from 0.1 to 0.6 MPa. The relationship between cylinder pressure and welding pressure is: welding pressure = (cylinder area / spot area) × cylinder pressure. In this experimental apparatus, the solder joint area is 88mm2, and the cylinder diameter is 53mm. After the conversion, the welding pressure is 35 times the cylinder pressure, so the welding pressure changes from 3.5 to 21MPa. The welding sample peel test uses the CMT2520 New SMIC microcomputer-controlled electronic tensile testing machine with a loading rate of 15 mm/min. The peel test is performed according to the structural adhesive test standard.

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