The use of plant growth regulators is a double-edged sword, which is more effective and less effective.
Plant conditioners not only improve the quality of agricultural products, but also enhance the stress resistance of crops. However, in order to avoid food safety accidents, it is necessary for the state to regulate the industry and strengthen scientific guidance on product use.
In recent years, the use of planting agents such as swelling agents and sweeteners has been improperly used, resulting in frequent safety accidents such as â€œexplosive watermelonâ€ and â€œpoisonous gingerâ€, which has made the public safe for plant growth regulators (hereinafter referred to as plant conditioners). Raise doubts, even prejudice.
"However, the above-mentioned safety accidents cannot erase the contribution of plant conditioners to agriculture." Many experts told the Journal of the Chinese Academy of Sciences that plant conditioners can not only improve the quality of agricultural products, but also enhance the resistance of crops.
However, industry experts also said that in order to avoid food safety incidents, the state needs to regulate the industry and strengthen scientific guidance on product use.
"gentle" pesticides In fact, as early as the 1930s, scientists discovered that there are traces of natural hormones in plants, which can control all physiological activities such as seed germination, growth, flowering, and fruiting. Inspired by this, it can promote or inhibit certain aspects of the plant's life processes, so that the planting agents that grow according to the grower's wishes continue to enter the public's field of vision.
Especially with the development of modern synthetic technology and bio-fermentation technology, a class of "special" pesticides, which are similar to the functions of endogenous hormones in plants, have been introduced.
Why is the planting agent special? At the Seed Health and Biopesticide Innovation Forum held recently, Duan Susheng, Director of the Major Special Division of the Science and Technology Development Research Institute of China Agricultural University, explained to reporters that from the perspective of the mechanism of action and the characteristics of the action, the planting agent is essentially different from ordinary pesticides. .
â€œMost of the pesticides are insecticidal, bactericidal, weeding, etc., while phytosanitary agents are more 'gentle'.â€ Duan Liusheng said that phytochemicals produce specific effects during a particular growth phase of the plant, thereby affecting plant endogenous hormones. The synthesis, transportation, metabolism and action ultimately regulate the growth and development of plants.
It is also the emphasis on the gentle character of the planting agent. In recent years, international pesticide giants have been involved in the planting agent business, and continue to acquire related professional companies, and the global market is also in a stable growth momentum.
Duan Liusheng said that from a global perspective, the annual sales of pesticides is worth 30 billion US dollars. Although the planting agent is still a small and young field in the pesticide industry, its share has occupied 5% and is growing at a rate of 10%. . In the United States, there are more than 20 kinds of planting ingredients approved by the state, with more than 200 varieties, and sales account for more than 20% of bio-pesticides.
The development of plant conditioners in China is also basically synchronized with the international. By the end of 2012, there were 272 national planting agent production enterprises with an annual production and sales volume of about 100,000 tons. There are 34 registered active ingredients and 588 varieties, including 123 original drugs and 465 preparations. Crops, 56 uses, annual application area of â€‹â€‹more than 200 million acres.
The product is a "double-edged sword"
At present, the product types, application fields and technical level of plant conditioners in China are constantly improving.
For plant conditioners, one is synthetic and the other is natural plant hormones extracted from living things. In the case of Duan Susheng, synthetic plant conditioners are now facing food safety challenges, and bio-plant conditioners developed using natural active substances have become the new favorite.
According to reports, gibberellin, brassinolide, abscisic acid and other biological planting agents have been industrialized in China. With the wide application of target discovery and molecular design techniques, other new varieties of plant conditioners are constantly coming out and playing a unique role.
For example, after application of 1-methylcyclopropene to horticultural crops such as fruits, vegetables, flowers, etc., it can inhibit physiological and biochemical reactions such as post-ripening or senescence of crops, and reduce the occurrence of physiological diseases; dihydrogibberellin is the most grassaceous plant. Bioactive growth retardant, 20g per hectare can prevent crop lodging; monocyanamide can inhibit catalase activity in plants, accelerate oxidation of pentose phosphate cycle, and stimulate crop growth.
It can be said that most plant conditioner products have obvious effects in increasing production and income, improving crop quality, and farmers' expectations for their use are getting higher and higher. However, as researchers test the Ministry of Agriculture pesticide residue assessment of the Qin Dongmei had said: "plant growth regulator is also double-edged sword, with well be more effective, and must not be less effective."
The most typical case is that in June 2010, the cotton farmers in Bengbu City, Hebei Province, due to the incorrect application of â€œsmall sturdyâ€, caused the grown cotton to grow to a height of 20 cm and no longer grow, forming a dead plant; May 2011 The villagers of Dalu Village, Yanling Town, Danyang City, Jiangsu Province, caused the improper use of â€œexpandingâ€, causing more than 6,000 kilograms of watermelon to burst like a mine.
In this regard, Zheng Xianfu, a professor at the College of Science, Henan Agricultural University, said that the effects of plant growth are affected by many factors, such as crop varieties, growth cycle, application site, regulator variety, application concentration, application method and external natural conditions. For this reason, once the use of the planting agent is in error, it may cause phytotoxicity to crops, which in turn causes unnecessary losses.
Scientific application is a key issue of agricultural product quality and safety incidents. It also pushes the planting agent to the wave of public opinion. However, Qin Dongmei clearly stated that the toxicity level of the planting agent is low toxicity and the following toxicity. There is no data or case showing that the planting is applied to the crop. Adjustments lead to poisoning, teratogenicity or carcinogenicity in humans or livestock, and there is no need for the public to worry about its safety.
In fact, for plant conditioners, the most important thing to pay attention to is its scientific use.
Duan Liusheng said that the main role of plant conditioners is to regulate the growth and development of plants. However, the systems of different crops vary widely, and the growth organs of each plant are also different. Even the same crops have different sensitivity to plant conditioners. Time effects, concentration effects, and position effects will occur. This particularity makes the phytochemicals significantly more demanding on the technology used than other common pesticides.
Moreover, the factors affecting the effect of the phyto-intensifier are related to the treatment period, the location, the treatment method, the treatment dose concentration, the number of times, and the external environmental factors. Duan Liusheng said: "The interaction and combination of plant conditioners will have different effects on plants. For example, regulators that promote plant growth, once used above a certain concentration, will not only have no effect, but will inhibit growth."
In his view, the problem of plant protection safety that has occurred continuously in recent years is mostly related to improper use. In order to ensure the safety of agricultural products to the greatest extent, Duan Shengsheng proposed that the planting agent should preferably be a crop corresponding to one preparation, and the manufacturer can also consider a specific product for a certain crop to form a product group.
According to the Chinese Pesticide Network , the physiological effects of plant conditioners are closely related to the growth and development period of plants, and the use of different growth seasons will also have different physiological effects. Therefore, the use of plant conditioners cannot be used according to uniform standards. On the other hand, to solve these problems in the industry, the state must also regulate management, strictly control the registration of products, and strengthen training for farmers to guide the correct use of plant conditioners.
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